How we did it:
Michael C. Feathers
The average book on Agile software development describes a fairyland of greenfield projects, with wall-to-wall tests that run after every few edits, and clean & simple source code.
The average software project, in our industry, was written under some aspect of code-and-fix, and without automated unit tests. And we can't just throw this code away; it represents a significant effort debugging and maintaining. It contains many latent requirements decisions. Just as Agile processes are incremental, Agile adoption must be incremental too. No more throwing away code just because it looked at us funny.
Mike begins his book with a very diplomatic definition of "Legacy". I'l skip ahead to the undiplomatic version: Legacy code is code without unit tests.
Before cleaning that code up, and before adding new features and removing bugs, such code must be de-legacified. It needs unit tests.
To add unit tests, you must change the code. To change the code, you need unit tests to show how safe your change was.
The core of the book is a cookbook of recipes to conduct various careful attacks. Each presents a particular problem, and a relatively safe way to migrate the code towards tests.
Code undergoing this migration will begin to experience the benefits of unit tests, and these benefits will incrementally make new tests easier to write. These efforts will make aspects of a legacy codebase easy to change.
It's an unfortunate commentary on the state of our programming industry how much we need this book.
Features the best practices in the art and science of constructing software--topics include design, applying good techniques to construction, eliminating errors, planning, managing construction activities, and relating personal character to superior software. Original. (Intermediate)
Martin Fowler, Kent Beck
Users can dramatically improve the design, performance, and manageability of object-oriented code without altering its interfaces or behavior. "Refactoring" shows users exactly how to spot the best opportunities for refactoring and exactly how to do it, step by step.
In designing large-scale C++ applications, you are entering a dimension barely skimmed by most C++ books, particularly considering experience with small programming projects does not scale up to larger projects. This book unites high-level design concepts with specific C++ programming details to reveal practical methods for planning and implementing high-quality large C++ systems. You will learn the importance of physical design in large systems, how to structure your software as an acyclic hierarchy of components, and techniques for reducing link-time and compile-time dependencies. Then the book turns to logical design issues--architecting a component, designing a function, and implementing an object--all in the context of a large-project environment.
Krzysztof Cwalina, Brad Abrams
A new edition of this title is available, ISBN-10: 0321545613 ISBN-13: 9780321545619 "This book is an absolute must-read for all .NET developers. It gives clear do and don't guidance on how to design class libraries for .NET. It also offers insight into the design and creation of .NET that really helps developers understand the reasons why things are the way they are. This information will aid developers designing their own class libraries and will also allow them to take advantage of the .NET class library more effectively." --Jeffrey Richter, author/trainer/consultant, Wintellect "Framework Design Guidelineswill help you in two important ways. First, any .NET developer will benefit from a greater understanding of the design principles that govern the .NET Base Class Library. Second, a deeper understanding of these principles will help you to create software that integrates well with the .NET environment. Quite frankly, this book should be on every .NET developer's bookshelf." --Bill Wagner, founder and consultant, SRT Solutions, author ofEffective C# "Not since Brooks'The Mythical Man Monthhas the major software maker of its time produced a book so full of relevant advice for the modern software developer. This book has a permanent place on my bookshelf and I consult it frequently." --George Byrkit, senior software engineer, Genomic Solutions "This book is a must-read for all architects and software developers thinking about frameworks. The book offers insight into some driving factors behind the design of the .NET Framework. It should be considered mandatory reading for anybody tasked with creating application frameworks." --Peter Winkler, senior software engineer, Balance Technology Inc. "Frameworks are valuable but notoriously difficult to construct: Your every decision must be geared towards making them easy to be used correctly and difficult to be used incorrectly. This book takes you through a progression of recommendations that will eliminate many of those downstream 'I wish I'd known that earlier' moments. I wish I'd read it earlier." --Paul Besly, principal technologist, QA "Filled with information useful to developers and architects of all levels, this book provides practical guidelines and expert background information to get behind the rules.Framework Design Guidelinestakes the already published guidelines to a higher level, and it is needed to write applications that integrate well in the .NET area." --Cristof Falk, software engineer Framework Design Guidelines: Conventions, Idioms, and Patterns for Reusable .NET Librariesteaches developers the best practices for designing system frameworks and reusable libraries for use with the Microsoft .NET Framework and WinFX. This book focuses on the design issues that directly affect the programmability of a framework, specifically its publicly accessible APIs. This book can improve the work of any .NET developer producing code that other developers will use. An added benefit is a collection of annotations to the guidelines by various members of the Microsoft .NET Framework and WinFX teams, which provide a lively discussion of the motives behind the guidelines, along with examples of good reasons for breaking the guidelines. Microsoft architects Krzysztof Cwalina and Brad Abrams offer guidelines for framework design from the top down. From their long experience and deep insight, you will learn The general philosophy of framework design Principles and guidelines that are fundamental to overall framework design Naming guidelines for the various parts of a framework, such as namespaces, types, and members Guidelines for the design of types and members of types Issues and guidelines that are important to ensure appropriate extensibilityin your framework Guidelines for working with exceptions, the preferred error reporting mechanism in the .NET Framework and WinFX Guidelines for extending and using types that commonly appear in frameworks Guidelines for and examples of common framework design patterns Guidelines in this book come in four major forms:Do,Consider,Avoid, andDo not. In general, aDoguideline should almost always be followed, aConsiderguideline should generally be followed, anAvoidguideline indicates that something is generally not a good idea, and aDo notguideline indicates something you should almost never do. Every guideline includes a discussion of its applicability, and most guidelines include a code example. A companion DVD includes theDesigning .NET Class Librariesvideo series, instructional presentations by the authors on design guidelines for developing classes and components that extend the .NET Framework. A sample API specification and other useful resources are also included.
Comprehensive, complete coverage is given of Windows programming fundamentals. Fully revised for Windows 98, this edition covers the basics, special techniques, the kernel and the printer, data exchange and links, and real applications developed in the text.
.NET 3.5 is Microsoft’s largest development software launch since .NET 2.0 and (unlike .NET 3.0) completely replaces all previous .NET versions. A new version of Visual Studio – Visual Studio ‘Orcas’ is being created for the new Framework together with new versions of both the C# and Visual Basic languages. This book deals with this new C# language and provides developers with a complete treatise on the new technology – explaining the importance of all the new features (lambda expressions, LINQ, ASP.NET AJAX, WPF everywhere) and how they integrate into the framework of the previous .NET versions. It is a comprehensively revised and updated version of the author’s previous award-winning titles.
The first edition of this book was released at the 2001 Tech-Ed conference in Atlanta, Georgia. At that time, the .NET platform was still a beta product, and in many ways, so was this book. This is not to say that the early editions of this text did not have merit—after all, the book was a 2002 Jolt Award finalist and it won the 2003 Referenceware Excellence Award. However, over the years that author Andrew Troelsen spent working with the common language runtime (CLR), he gained a much deeper understanding of the .NET platform and the subtleties of the C# programming language, and he feels that this fifth edition of the book is as close to a “final release” as he’s come yet. This new edition has been comprehensively revised and rewritten to make it accurately reflect the C# 4 language specification for the .NET 4 platform. You’ll find new chapters covering the important concepts of dynamic lookups, named and optional arguments, Parallel LINQ (PLINQ), improved COM interop, and variance for generics. If you’re checking out this book for the first time, do understand that it's targeted at experienced software professionals and/or graduate students of computer science (so don't expect three chapters on iteration or decision constructs!). The mission of this text is to provide you with a rock-solid foundation in the C# programming language and the core aspects of the .NET platform (assemblies, remoting, Windows Forms, Web Forms, ADO.NET, XML web services, etc.). Once you digest the information presented in these 25 chapters, you’ll be in a perfect position to apply this knowledge to your specific programming assignments, and you’ll be well equipped to explore the .NET universe on your own terms. What you’ll learn Be the first to understand the .NET 4 platform and Visual C# 2010. Discover the ins and outs of the leading .NET technology. Learn from an award-winning author who has been teaching the .NET world since version 1.0. Find complete coverage of the WPF, WCF, and WF foundations that support the core .NET platform. Who this book is for This book is for anyone with some software development experience who is interested in the new .NET Framework 4 and the C# language. Whether you are moving to .NET for the first time or are already writing applications on .NET 2.0 or .NET 3.5, this book will provide you with a comprehensive grounding in the new technology and serve as a complete reference throughout your coding career. Table of Contents The Philosophy of NET Building C# Applications Core C# Programming Constructs, Part I Core C# Programming Constructs, Part II Defining Encapsulated Class Types Understanding Inheritance and Polymorphism Understanding Structured Exception Handling Understanding Object Lifetime Working with Interfaces Understanding Generics Delegates, Events, and Lambdas Advanced C# Language Features LINQ to Objects Configuring NET Assemblies Type Reflection, Late Binding, and Attribute-Based Prog Processes, AppDomains, and Object Contexts Understanding CIL and the Role of Dynamic Assemblies Dynamic Types and the Dynamic Language Runtime Multithreaded and Parallel Programming File I/O and Object Serialization ADO.NET Part I: The Connected Layer ADO.NET Part II: The Disconnected Layer ADO.NET Part III: The Entity Framework Introducing LINQ to XML Introducing Windows Communication Foundation Introducing Windows Workflow Foundation 40 Introducing Windows Presentation Foundation and XAML Programming with WPF Controls WPF Graphics Rendering Services WPF Resources, Animations, and Styles WPF Control Templates and UserControls Building ASP.NET Web Pages ASP.NET Web Controls, Master Pages and Theme ASP.NET State Management Techniques
The puzzles and problems in Exceptional C++ not only entertain, they will help you hone your skills to become the sharpest C++ programmer you can be. Many of these problems are culled from the famous Guru of the Week feature of the Internet newsgroup comp.lang.c++, moderated, expanded and updated to conform to the official ISO/ANSI C++ Standard. Try your skills against the C++ masters and come away with the insight and experience to create more efficient, effective, robust, and portable C++ code.
Offers application debugging techniques for Microsoft .NET Framework and Windows, covering topics such as exception monitoring, crash handlers, and multithreaded deadlocks.
Build your expertise as you move beyond the basics—and delve into the core topics of programming with ASP.NET 2.0. Useful to both experienced developers and those developing new skills, this ultimate reference is packed with expert guidance, hands-on programming instruction, and practical examples to help you advance your mastery of developing applications for the Web. Discover how to: Author rich, visually consistent pages and manage layout with themes and Master pages Create personalized pages that persist user preferences Retrieve, modify, and manage data with Microsoft ADO.NET Configure the HTTP pipeline to serve ASP.NET 2.0 pages Control program flow by tracing and handling exceptions Design caching layers and learn state management techniques to optimize application performance Manage users with membership control, registration, and authentication capabilities Build real-world data access layers using common design patterns Use custom collections with data source controls Learn the internals of grid controls PLUS—Get code samples on the Web
Nikhil Kothari, Vandana Datye
Web Forms—the Page and Control Framework at the heart of ASP.NET—makes it easier to develop dynamic Web applications. But you can go beyond the controls that ship with ASP.NET—and power up your Web sites and applications—by creating your own server controls. You can also develop and distribute your own controls for commercial use. This comprehensive guide, direct from key insiders who really know the technology, combines conceptual and architectural details with practical, how-to information and real-world code samples to show exactly how to create custom, reusable, professional-quality server controls with rich design-time functionality. It also provides essential information about configuration and the HTTP runtime, packaging, deployment, debugging, and developing controls that incorporate XML Web services, plus other vital topics. And it introduces the ASP.NET Web Matrix tool for creating Web applications and for using server controls. Topics covered include: OVERVIEW ASP.NET page programming Component programming SERVER CONTROLS User controls Implementing properties View state management Rendering Control life cycle Events and Postback Styles Composite, validator, and data-bound controls Client-side behavior Design-time functionality Localization, licensing, and deployment SERVER COMPONENTS XML Web services HTTP handlers SERVER CONTROL CASE STUDIES Templated data-bound controls DHTML-based server controls “[This book] is a must-have for all serious ASP.NET component developers.” –Scott Guthrie, Product Unit Manager, Microsoft ASP.NET Product Team
Visual Studio is a development IDE created by Microsoft to enable easier development for Microsoft programming languages as well as development technologies. It has been the most popular IDE for working with Microsoft development products for the past 10 years. Extensibility is a key feature of Visual Studio. There have not been many books written on this aspect of Visual Studio. Visual Studio Extensibility (VSX) can be considered a hard topic to learn for many developers in comparison with most .NET related topics. Also, its APIs are very complex and not very well written. Some may refer to these APIs as dirty because they do not have good structure, naming convention, or consistency. Visual Studio is now 10 years old. It was created during the COM days for COM programming but later migrated to .NET. However, Visual Studio still relies heavily on COM programming. It was revamped when moving to the .NET platform but still contains its COM nature; this fact is what makes it harder for .NET developers to work with VSX. Because it is an older product built on two technologies, it has produced inconsistency in code. Although there are problems with the current version of VSX, the future looks bright for it. The many different teams working on the software have been moved into one umbrella group known as the Visual Studio Ecosystem team. Throughout the past 10 years Visual Studio has continued to grow and new extensibility features have been added. Learning all of the options with their different purposes and implementations is not easy. Many extensibility features are broad topics such as add–ins, macros, and the new domain–specific language tools in Visual Studio. Learning these topics can be difficult because they are not closely related to general .NET programming topics. This book is for .NET developers who are interested in extending Visual Studio as their development tool. In order to understand the book you must know the following material well: Object–oriented programming (OOP), the .NET Framework and .NET programming, C# or Visual Basic languages, some familiarity with C++, some familiarity with XML and its related topics, and Visual Studio structure and usage. A familiarity with COM programming and different .NET technologies is helpful. The aims of this book are to: Provide an overview of all aspects of VSX Enable readers to know where/when to use extensibility Familiarize readers with VS Extensibility in detail Show readers the first steps and let them learn through their own experiences Use examples, sample code, and case studies to demonstrate things in such a way that helps readers understand the concepts Avoid bothering readers with long discussions and useless code samples In order to use this book, and get the most out of it, there are some technical requirements. You must have the following two packages installed on your machine to be able to read/understand the chapters and test code samples: Visual Studio 2008 Team System Edition (or other commercial editions) Visual Studio 2008 SDK 1.0 (or its newer versions) You will need to buy Visual Studio 2008 to register for an evaluation version. The Free Express editions of Visual Studio do not support the extensibility options. The Visual Studio SDK is needed in order to read some of the chapters in the book and can be downloaded as a free package. The operating system doesn t matter for the content of the book, but all code was written with Visual Studio 2008 Team System Edition in Windows Vista x86. Chapters 1, 2, and 3 will give you an introduction to the basic concepts you need to understand before you can move on to the rest of the book. Chapter 4 discusses the automation model, which is an important prerequisite for many of the chapters in the book that focus on add–ins, macros, and VSPackages. Chapters 5–14 will utilize add–ins in a case study to learn about the main responsibilities of the automation model and some of the more common techniques used in VSX development. Each of the following chapters is dedicated to a specific extensibility option; they are independent of one another and you can read them in any order. It is important to read chapters 4–14 before you begin reading about the specific extensibility options. Chapter 5 contains a walk–through of the Add–in Wizard and describes its steps. Chapter 6 will show you the anatomy of add–ins and explain how to create add–ins and how they work. Chapter 7 discusses how to manipulate solutions, projects, and project items via your code to build add–ins. Chapter 8 shows you how to deal with documents and code editors in your add–ins. Chapter 9 explains how to work with programming codes and how to manipulate their elements. Chapter 10 describes some ways to work with user interface elements, Windows Forms, and controls via code in your add–ins. Chapter 11 discusses the Tools Options page and uses add–ins as the case study to show you how to create your own Tools Options pages. Chapter 12 teaches you how to debug and test your add–ins. Chapter 13 shows you how to deploy your add–ins. Chapter 14 completes the discussion about add–ins by talk about resources and localization of add–ins. Chapter 15 discusses a new feature in VS 2008: the Visual Studio Shell. Chapter 16 talks about domain–specific language tools; you will learn how to build them and see a quick overview of DSL tools. Chapter 17 discusses debugging and how to extend debugging features. Chapter 18 talks about VSPackages as a way to extend VS functionality and add something new to its existing packages. Chapter 19 teaches you what a code snippet is and how to write and manage code snippets in Visual Studio to make your coding process easier. Chapter 20 talks about VS project templates and starter kits and how to write your own project templates. Chapter 21 focuses on MSBuild and writing custom builds for Visual Studio and .NET applications. Chapter 22 discusses Visual Studio macros in detail and explains how to build a Visual Studio macro. Keyvan Nayyeri is a software architect and developer. He has a Bachelor of Science degree in applied mathematics. His main focus is on Microsoft development technologies and their related markup languages. Nayyeri is also a team leader and developer for several .NET open–source projects; this includes writing code for special purposes. He holds an MVP award for Comunnity Server. He recently co–authored Wrox Professional Community Server (2007).
John E. Hopcroft, Rajeev Motwani, Jeffrey D. Ullman
This classic book on formal languages, automata theory, and computational complexity has been updated to present theoretical concepts in a concise and straightforward manner with the increase of hands-on, practical applications. This new edition comes with Gradiance, an online assessment tool developed for computer science. Gradiance is the most advanced online assessment tool developed for the computer science discipline. With its innovative underlying technology, Gradiance turns basic homework assignments and programming labs into an interactive learning experience for students. By using a series of root questions and hints, it not only tests a student's capability, but actually simulates a one-on-one teacher-student tutorial that allows for the student to more easily learn the material. Through the programming labs, instructors are capable of testing, tracking, and honing their students' skills, both in terms of syntax and semantics, with an unprecedented level of assessment never before offered. For more information about Gradiance, please visit www.aw.com/gradiance.
Code generation has the potential to revolutionize application development. Rather than handcrafting each piece of code, developers are increasingly turning to code generation based on templates and applications of business logic to automatically perform a variety of tasks. This book teaches the technical details of code generation in .NET through a coherent series of steps that will help you to incorporate code generation into your own development efforts. Veteran author Kathleen Dollard teaches code generation as a scripted repeatable process using templates you control, so you're not tied to a particular framework or style. Because you can regenerate code at any time, you can incorporate changes, including database changes, throughout the life of your application. The templates are flexible and designed to work smoothly with the handcrafted code youll use to customize your application. The underlying fundamentals are explained along with three specific techniques: outputting code to a stream, using the Code DOM, and using XSLT-based code generation. In addition to the text, the tools in the book (downloadable in both VB .NET and C#) include a mechanism to extract information from SQL Server; a tool for editing and running code-generation scripts; a simple, flexible ORM tool that relates your database structure to your runtime class model; and a set of templates you can use as the starting point for your adventures in code generation. Generating repetitive sections of code frees you to focus on the features that make your application unique. Code generation will turbo-charge your development cycles by offering speed, reusability, agility, and consistency. Go forth and generate!
This book shows developers how to reduce development costs by building custom tools for maximum flexibility and effiency.
This hands-on guide is for developers who want to go far beyond the obvious features of Visual Studio. It takes the reader on a detailed tour through code editor hacks, all manners of customization, even external tools such as PowerToys. Full of valuable tips, tools, and tricks.
Zain Naboulsi, Sara Ford
Work smarter and increase productivity with expert tips and tricks for using Microsoft Visual Studio. This quick reference provides practical advice and shortcuts for the code editor, visual designers, search capabilities, debugger, and other features of the IDE through several versions.